ni zao lililopo katika aina ya mmea nyasi na ni moja ya nafaka, hulimwa kwa mbegu yake ambayo hutumika kwa chakula, Kuna aina yingi za Ngano, japo aina iayotumika saa ni Ngano ya kawaida. Ngani ni zao la biashara.


Katika rekodi zaki akiolojia zinaonesha kuwa Ngano kwa mara ya kwanza ilipandwa mikoa ya Fertile Crescentkati ya miaka 9600 BCE (Kabla Yesu hajazaliwa). Ngano hulimwa sana kuliko mazao mengine ya chakula (220.4 hekta,  2014). Uhitaji wa Ngano kidunia unaongezeka. Kwa 4,000 B.C. (Kabla Yesu kuzaliwa) Nggano ilianza kuenea maeneo ya bara la Asia, Ulaya na Afrika ya Kaskazini wheat farming had spread to Asia, Europe and North Africa. New species of wheat developed because early farmers probably selected kernels from their best wheat plants to use as seeds for planting the following year’s crop. That way, only the best wheat qualities were passed from one generation to the next. Soon wheat became an important world wide cropSoon people grew enough wheat to feed people from other lands. Once there was extra wheat available, trade between various cultures developed

Varieties of wheat
Different varieties of wheat are suited to different types of flour, meaning that farmers have to be careful about selecting the right wheat to grow, and then keeping varieties separate at harvest time and in store. Other key considerations are achieving the right technical standards (for example in relation to grain protein content); making sure it is kept free of insects, other pests and potentially harmful contaminants; and protecting the environment by ensuring correct usage of fertiliser and pesticides (if necessary).
Flour foods Activity session 4
Types of wheat
Most wheat grown in the UK is winter wheat. This is planted in the autumn, generally between September and November. Winter wheat accounts for more than 95% of the UK grain used by millers. Grain planted in January-March is generally spring wheat. This tends to yield less, but can suit some farms well. Wheat imported from North America, which accounts for 600-700 thousand tonnes each year, is spring wheat used to make breadmaking flour.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Why is wheat imported?
Traditionally, millers used wheat from North America, especially Canada, because it is ideal for making the high risen bread enjoyed in the UK.
Wheat of this type still accounts for a proportion of the breadmaking grist (a grist is the blend of wheat used to make flour).
Flour foods Activity session 4
Why is wheat imported?
However, working together, plant breeders, farmers, millers and bakers have found ways to improve the standard of UK grain and adjust the baking process so that a greater proportion of home-grown wheat can be used.
This has had benefits for UK farmers, in that they have a bigger market for their produce, and consumers since imported wheat is more expensive than home-grown. There are advantages for everyone in the chain associated with local supply rather than using imported material: for example transport costs are lower and traceability is easier.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Wheat production
The ‘grain chain’, describes the series of steps involved in producing flour. It can also be extended to include dishes made from flour, such as bread.
There are 3 stages of processing: • Growing, harvesting • Primary processing: cleaning, milling. • Secondary processing: mixing, slicing, proving and baking.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Wheat production
Wheat is sown on two fifths of Britain’s arable land, resulting in a total harvest of 15-17 million tonnes per year. In the UK, wheat is sown in September, October and November and harvested the following August or September. The harvesting process removes the grains from the plant. The grain is stored, and when needed transported to the mill.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Primary processing
At the mill the wheat is cleaned and conditioned.
Powerful magnets, metal detectors and other machines extract metal objects, stones and other grains and small seeds from the wheat grain. Throughout the cleaning process, air currents lift off dust and chaff.
Conditioning with water softens the outer pericarp (bran) layer of the wheat and makes it easier to remove the floury endosperm during milling.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Primary processing
The wheat is blended with other types of wheat in a process called gristing to make different kinds of flour.
Occasionally, wheat gluten is added to increase the protein content of milled flours. .
Flour foods Activity session 4
Primary processing
The grist is passed through a series of fluted ‘break’ rolls rotating at different speeds.
These rolls are set so that they do not crush the wheat but shear it open, separating the white, inner portion from the outer skins.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Primary processing
The fragments of wheat grain are separated by a complex arrangement of sieves.
White endosperm particles are channelled to a series of smooth ‘reduction’ rolls for final milling into white flour.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Primary processing
The bran, wheatgerm and endosperm have all been separated out. They can now be blended to make different types of flour.
• Wholemeal flour uses all parts of the grain. • Brown flour contains about 85% of the original grain, but with some bran and germ removed. • White flour is made from the endosperm only.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Primary processing
The different flours are packaged and sent to the bakeries.
Flour foods Activity session 4
Secondary processing
Secondary processing uses products like flour and converts them into more complex foods like bread, biscuits and cakes.
For bread, this would include: • Weighing and measuring • Mixing • Proving • Shaping • Baking

Contact/ Wasiliana nasi 

Phone (Simu): +255766797400 /+255673797408                                                    Email:

Maisha Daily LogoOur Services ( Huduma zetu): 

  1. Research( Utafiti),

  2. Drip Irrigation Installation (Ufungaji wa Umwagiliaji wa Matone)

  3. Project Proposal ( Mapendekezo ya Miradi),

  4. Business Plan ( Plani za Biashara),

  5. Profit Assessment ( Upimaji wa Faida)

  6. Agricultural Books (Vitabu vya kilimo)



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