KILIMO BORA CHA VITUNGUU SWAUMU (GARLIC)

UTANGULIZI
Vitunguu saumu ni zao ambalo lipo katika jamii ya vitunguu na hufanana sana na vitunguu maji, zao hili linatumika sana duniani kama kiungo cha chakula na wengine hutumia kama dawa.

ASILI YAKE
Vitunguu swaumu asili yake ni maeneo ya Mediterranean na China, Asia lakini pia usitawi katika nchi za kitropik kwa hapa tanzania ustawi katika mikoa ya singida,Arusha,Iringa na Mbeya. pia utumika kama kiungo cha chakula dawa kwa binadamu na wanyama pia na pia utumika kutengeneza mafuta pia harufu yake kali ufukuza wadudu waalibifiu shambani.
hivyo shamba la vitunguu swaumu haliwi na wadudu wa halibifu sana ukiringanisha na mazao mengine.

AINA ZA VITUNGUU SWAUMU
Vitunguu swaumu vipo vya aina mbalimbali nazo ni:=
i) Antichoke – Hii kwa mbali inaonekana kama ni nyekundu lakini sio iliyokolea
ii) Soft neck – Kwa rangi ni nyeupe inatumika sana kwasababu hachukua mda mfupi shambani
iii) Silver skin – Hivi vina rangi nzuri ya silver na mara nyingi hutumiwa na wasindikaji maana vinadumu mda mrefu bila kuharibika.

HALI YA HEWA & UDONGO
Vitunguu saumu hulimwa kiasi cha mita 1800 au zaidi kutoka usawa wa bahari na mvua kiasi cha mm 1000 au zaidi na joto kiasi udongo tifutifu na mnyevunyevu na usio tuamisha maji ndio unafaa kulima vitunguu saumu.

UTAYALISHAJI WA SHAMBA
Shamba linapaswa kutayarishwa mapema kabisa, lima na akikisha udongo ni tifutifu na pia  unaweza kutengeneza matuta kwaajili ya kupanda weka samadi shambani wiki 2 kabla ya kupanda.

UTAYALISHAJI WA MBEGU
Mbegu ya kitunguu swaumu ni ile punje (vikonyo) inayokuwa imebanguliwa kutoka kwenye kitunguu au tunguu iliyokomaa kabisa, kiasi cha kilo 300 – 500 hutumika kwa hekari moja na inatakiwa uchague mbegu isio na magonjwa au isio dhaifu.

UPANDAJI
Tabia ya mmea wa Vitunguu swaumu humea huanza kuota kipindi cha baridi ( miezi yenye baridi), kwa Tanzania kipindi ambacho hakuna joto ni miezi ya May mpaka August, Unachukua kitunguu swaumu na kutenganisha vitunguu kimoja kimoja (bulbs) na kuchagua vile vikubwa maana hivi ndivyo vitakavyo kupa mazao mengi na bora, nafasi kati ya kitunguu na kitunguu ni sentimeta 5 na kati ya mistari ni sentimeta 20 na kushuka chini kiwe na wastani wa inchi 2.5 . Baada ya kupanda pandishia udongo na uukandamize kuhakikisha kwamba kimekaa vizuri na hakiwezi kuathiriwa na mvua au maji wakati wa kumwagilia ili kisikae upande au kung’olewa kabisa. Uotaji mzuri hutegemea pia namna vitunguu swaumu vilivyo hifadhiwa kabla ya kupandwa, kama vilihifadhiwa sehemu zenye joto na hewa finyu uotaji wake utakuwa duni na dhaifu. Pandia TSP kilo 40 kwa eka au kilo 100 kwa hekta.

MBOLEA
Mbolea huwekwa baada ya palizi, tumia mbolea ya kukuzia CAN au UREA. CAN kiasi cha kilo 75 kwa eka au 190 kwa Hekta au UREA kiasi cha kilo 40 kwa eka na 100 kwa hekta na palilia mara mbili au zaidi ili kuweka shamba katika hali ya usafi.

UPALILIAJI
Kuwa na juhudi ya kupalilia ili kuipa uhuru mimea kumea vizuri na kulifanya shamba lako kuwa safi, Palizi ya kwanza ifanyike mapema mara tu magugu yanapo tokeza wakati vikonyo vimesha chipua  na baada ya palizi ya kwanza ndipo weka mbolea. Unaweza kupulizia dawa ya kuua magugu endapo vitunguu vimeshaota  kama vile Bromoxynil ambayo uua majani mapana na fusilade uua nyasi. Mmea unapoendelea kukua  na kutoa maua yaache majani yarefuke mpaka yajikunje, ndipo utayakata ili kuongeza uzalishaji.

KUKATA Those pretty spiral stems that form above your garlic in June are edible, and by removing them you’ll improve your garlic harvest!

You’ll notice in early to mid June that your garlic is sending up a stalk in from the center of the plant. The stalk is thicker than the leaves, and is called the garlic scape. The scape, if left on the plant, will form a flower and then seed (you can eat those tiny seeds! using a garlic press is the best way to do that!). By cutting off the scape you are asking the plant to send all of it’s energy in to increasing the bulb size, rather than in putting energy toward flowers and seed. Since the bulb is what we eat, we recommend cutting the scape. Plus, scapes are delicious and can be used just like garlic, but they are ready a month or two before the garlic bulb. Win, win!

To cut your scape, wait until the center stalk completely forms and grows above the rest of the plant. As it grows up it will begin to curl or spiral upward. At that point, cut the stalk as far down as you can without cutting any leaves off.

Not all of your scapes will come at once, so remember to revisit the patch weekly until all the scapes have been removed.

MAGONJWA & WADUDU

MAGONJWA
Vitunguu swaumu havishambuliwi sana na magonjo, ila magongwa yake ni kama:=
i) Fusari muozo-unasababishwa na ukungu katika majani au miziz na pia unaweza kudhibiti kwa kuchoma masalia ya mimea baada ya kuvuna
ii) Kutu ya majani-mmea unakua na vinundu vya ukngu vyenye rangi ya kahawia kama kutu katika majani tumia dawa ya ukungu  kama fungaran nabayfidan na nordox ili kuzuia
iii) Kuoza kwa vitunguu-ukungu wa rangi ya blue ufunika vitunguu na usabibisha vitunguu kuoza na utokea gharan vuna kwa uangalifu ili kuepusha michubuko  na hakikisha store ni safi
iv) Baka jani-vidonda vidogo hutokeza katika majani na badae vinakua vikubwa epuka kumwagilia maji mengi kupita kiasi na tumia mzunguko wa mazao
v) Muozo shingo-shingo kuonyesha dalili ya majimaji weka mbolea ya ntrogen kama CAN,UREA na mwagilia maji ya kutosha hasa vinapo elekea kuvunwa.

WADUDU
Wadudu kama chawa wekundu nondo na funza  wanakata miche na mizizi tumia dawa ya karate,selecron,novthin,dursban hutumika kuuwa wadudu

UVUNAJI
Baada ya miezi 6-7 tokea kupanda ndio mda muafaka wa kuvuna vitunguu swaumu kwani vinakuwa vimekomaa na majani na mashina huonesha dalili ya kukauka, ndipo viache vitunguu shambani mpaka majani yanape kukauka kabisa  ng’oa kwa mkono au jembe na pia kua muangalifu ili kuepusha kuchubua vitunguu. Kiasi cha tani 4 – 7 zinaweza kuvunwa katika heka moja.

SOKO

Soko lipo kwasababu Vitunguu Swaumu ni kiungo kinacho tumika na wengi, kwa bei ya shiling 3,000 – 3800 kwa kilo.

Contact/ Wasiliana nasi 

Phone (Simu): +255766797400      Email: daudilyela@yahoo.com

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Our Services ( Huduma zetu): Research( Utafiti), Project Proposal ( Mapendekezo ya Miradi), Business Plan ( Plani za Biashara), Profit Assessment ( Upimaji wa Faida),

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